Lallemantia (Balangu) is a small genus of annual
or perennial plants in the family Lamiaceae. These plants were used in folk
medicine and food industry. In this study, morphological, anatomical,
ecological, Polynological and karyological characteristics, fatty acid composition, mucilage yield ,total phenol and
flavonoid and alpha- amylase activity in three Iranian Balangu; Lallemantia
iberica, L. peltata and L. royleana were compared. The
results showed that most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other members
of Lamiaceae family, except that chollenchyma cells are less developed in L.
royleana stem and there is no scelerenchyma cells in stem and root. Some
anatomical characteristics have taxonoimc
value, such as length / width ratio in epidermal cells, size of pith and
xylem cells in root, number and thickness of palisade cell layers in blade, cross section shape and number of vascular bundle of petiole.
Diacytic is dominated stomata type on both surfaces of leaves in all species.
Nutlets are black or dark brown and
oblong-triangular with V-shaped areoles. The surface ornamentation is verrucate
in L. iberica and L. peltata, and reticulate in L. royleana.
Pollen micromorphological characteristic of Lallemantia is similar to other
taxon in Nepetinae subtribe, In the other
word, Pollen grains are monad, hexaculpate and isopolar in shape. Based
on exine ornamentation, two types of pollen grains were recognized: (1) type I,
with bireticulate sculpture in L.
iberica and L. royleana, (2) type II with microreticulate sculpture in L. peltata.
Therefore, micromorphology study, is useful for identification of studied
species. The result revealed that Lallemantia is a karyologically stable
genus, we found 2n = 2x = 14 for all the accessions studied;
B-chromosomes were only found in one accession of L. iberica. Phyllogenetic analysis
show that L. royleana and L. baldshuanica are monophyletic clade
with strong support, also L. peltata is sister group for L. canescens
and L. iberica clade. Nutlets of Lallemantia
species contains up to 30% oil.
α-Linolenic, linoleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids in all
analyzed nutlets. The greatest amount of saturated fatty acid is palmitic acid.
The result showed that the nutlets of Lallemantia can be good source of
edible oil. Also, the Linolenic / Linoleic ratio and unsaturated fatty acid /
saturated fatty acid ratio have taxonomic value in the genus. During mucilage
extraction, nutlet: water ratio and temperature were found to have a
significant effect on yield. The optimum operating conditions were found to be
extraction temperature of 80◦ C, nutlet : water ratio of 1:60 and pH
of 4. The maximum yield of dried mucilage obtained from Lallemantia royleana
was 16.4%.. Methanolic extract of Lallemantia peltata showed highest
total phenol (813.5 ± 362.3 mg GA/100g DW), while highest total flavonoid
content was recorded in methanolic extract of L. royleana (22.5 ± 2.8 mg
CA/100 g DW). The result obtained from enzyme assay show that the α-Amylase
specific activity of mucilage is significantly deferent among Lallemantia
species. However, L. royleana and L. iberica have maximum and
minimum specific activity respectively. Ecological analyzes have shown that altitude together with other dependent environmental
variables (pH, EC and soil texture) are the main ecological factors controlling
species distribution across Lallemantia habitats.